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Citation Styles and References: APA Style Formats

General Rules

List cited sources on a separate page called References (centered at top of page)

Double spaced

Hanging indent

Alpha by last name of first author

Include complete journal title

APA Publication Manual

The publication manual is available for in library use only.

APA style websites


Journal article

Brenner, S. L., Burns, B. J., Curry, J. F., Silva, S. G., Kratochvil, C. J., & Domino, M. E. (2015). Mental health service use among adolescents following participation in a randomized controlled trial for clinical depression. Journal Of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 44(4), 551-558.

Journal Article (when authors number 8 or more)

Schnurr, P. P., Friedman, M. J., Engel, C. C., Foa, E. B., Shea, M. T., Chow, B. K., . . . Bernardy, N. (2007). Cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in women: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 297, 820–830.

Open Access Journal

Fink, P., Ørnbøl, E., & Christensen, K. S. (2010). The outcome of health anxiety in primary care. A two-year follow-up study on health care costs and self-rated health. PLoS ONE,5 , e9873.



American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author

Duffy, J. R. (2005). Motor speech disorders: Substrates, differential diagnosis, and management (2nd ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Book Chapter

Weismer, G., & Kim, Y. (2010). Classification and taxonomy of motor speech disorders: What are the issues? In B. Maassen & P. H. H. M. van Lieshout (Eds.), Speech motor control: New developments in basic and applied research (pp. 229–241). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Other examples

Government Report

Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2009). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2008: Volume I, Secondary school students (NIH Publication No. 097402). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved from

Centers for Disease Control, & Prevention. (2012). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 61.

Advance Online Publication

Lansford, K. L., & Liss, J. M. (2014). Vowel acoustics in dysarthria: Mapping to perception. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. Advance online publication. doi:10.1044/1092-4388 (2013/12-0263)

Not Published Yet

Frazier, E. A., Fristad, M. A., Arnold, L. E., Gracious, B., Failla, M., Chitchumroonchokchai, C., & Habash, D. (in press). Nutritional and safety outcomes from an open-label micronutrient intervention for pediatric bipolar spectrum disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent  Psychopharmacology.

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