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Citation Styles and References: APA 6 Style Format

APA Style Websites

APA Sample Paper and References

General Rules

List cited sources on a separate page called References (centered at top of page)

  • Double spaced
  • Hanging indent
  • Sort reference list alphabetically by last name of first author
  • Include complete journal title title case
  • Use sentence case for article titles

Journal Examples to Follow

Journal article

Brenner, S. L., Burns, B. J., Curry, J. F., Silva, S. G., Kratochvil, C. J., & Domino, M. E. (2015). Mental health service use among adolescents following participation in a randomized controlled trial for clinical depression. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 44(4), 551-558.

Journal Article (when authors number 8 or more)

Schnurr, P. P., Friedman, M. J., Engel, C. C., Foa, E. B., Shea, M. T., Chow, B. K., . . . Bernardy, N. (2007). Cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in women: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 297, 820–830.

Open Access Journal

Fink, P., Ørnbøl, E., & Christensen, K. S. (2010). The outcome of health anxiety in primary care. A two-year follow-up study on health care costs and self-rated health. PLoS ONE, 5, e9873.

Cochrane Review

Smith, J., Kurt, K., & Anderston, B. (2012). Occupational therapy and schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2012(1), 1–101.

Advance Online Publication

Lansford, K. L., & Liss, J. M. (2014). Vowel acoustics in dysarthria: Mapping to perception. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. Advance online publication. doi:10.1044/1092-4388 (2013/12-0263)

Not Published Yet

Frazier, E. A., Fristad, M. A., Arnold, L. E., Gracious, B., Failla, M., Chitchumroonchokchai, C., & Habash, D. (in press). Nutritional and safety outcomes from an open-label micronutrient intervention for pediatric bipolar spectrum disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent  Psychopharmacology.

Book Examples to Follow


American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Publisher.

Duffy, J. R. (2005). Motor speech disorders: Substrates, differential diagnosis, and management (2nd ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Book Chapter

Weismer, G., & Kim, Y. (2010). Classification and taxonomy of motor speech disorders: What are the issues? In B. Maassen & P. H. H. M. van Lieshout (Eds.), Speech motor control: New developments in basic and applied research (pp. 229–241). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Other Examples

Government Report

Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2009). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2008: Volume I, Secondary school students (NIH Publication No. 097402). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved from

Centers for Disease Control, & Prevention. (2012). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 61.

Blog Post

Nieder, D. (2018, February 10). An AAC WWYD, for the professionals [Blog post]. Retrieved from


Valant, J. (2015, November 5). How to do a bridge exercise [Video file]. Retrieved from


American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (n.d.). Dysarthria. Retrieved from


Nike, Inc. (2018). Nike Training Club (Version 5.13.0) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from

Class Notes, Class Lectures & Presentations

Online PowerPoint Slides

Bannon, C. M. (2018, September 17). Lecture 3: Accessing the vision science literature [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from

Online Class Handouts

Nadler, B. (2018, September 17). Lecture 4: Medical mobile apps [Class handout]. Retrieved from


Class handouts or PowerPoint slides not available online are considered personal communication as they are not recoverable by other researchers. Notes from class lectures are also considered personal communications in APA style. The above examples are suggestions for citing in-class materials when required by MWU faculty. 

For additional information on these issues:

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APA Publication Manual

APA Style Guides

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