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APA 7: Reference List

Basic Principles of the Reference List

  • The reference list documents sources used in a paper or manuscript.
  • The references list should begin on a new page titled "References,” bolded and centered at the top of the page.
  • Format reference entries with a hanging indent of 0.5 inches. 

Four Elements of a Reference List Entry

  1. Author: Who is responsible for the work?
  2. Date: When was this work published?
  3. Title: What is this work called?
  4. Source: From where can the work be retrieved?


Author Type Format Example
One individual Surname, Initials. Pierce, K. M.
Multiple individuals Surname, Initials., & Surname, Initials. Lee, C., Jonas, A. L., & Campione, E. B.
Organization Organization Name. American Physical Therapy Association.
Government agency Specific Agency Name. National Institute of Mental Health.

  • Include all author names for 1 to 20 authors.
  • For 21+ authors, list the first 19 authors, an ellipsis, and the final author.


  • Do not use the copyright date from the footer of websites.
  • Use last updated date over date of last review for online content.
  • Use “n.d.” when date of publication cannot be determined.


  • For standalone works (i.e. book, report, website, etc.), italicize the title. Use sentence case.
  • For works part of a greater whole (i.e. journal article, book chapter, etc.), do not italicize the title. Use sentence case.


Source Type Format Example
Journal article Periodical Title, Volume(Issue), Pages. DOI Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 34(1): 29-53.
Government report Parent Agencies. URL U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health.
Book or ebook Publisher Name. DOI or URL Wiley.
Webpage Site Name. URL Mayo Clinic.


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