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Basic Principles of the Reference List
- The reference list documents sources used in a paper or manuscript.
- The references list should begin on a new page titled "References,” bolded and centered at the top of the page.
- Format reference entries with a hanging indent of 0.5 inches.
Four Elements of a Reference List Entry
- Author: Who is responsible for the work?
- Date: When was this work published?
- Title: What is this work called?
- Source: From where can the work be retrieved?
||Pierce, K. M.
||Surname, Initials., & Surname, Initials.
||Lee, C., Jonas, A. L., & Campione, E. B.
||American Physical Therapy Association.
||Specific Agency Name.
||National Institute of Mental Health.
- Include all author names for 1 to 20 authors.
- For 21+ authors, list the first 19 authors, an ellipsis, and the final author.
- Do not use the copyright date from the footer of websites.
- Use last updated date over date of last review for online content.
- Use “n.d.” when date of publication cannot be determined.
- For standalone works (i.e. book, report, website, etc.), italicize the title. Use sentence case.
- For works part of a greater whole (i.e. journal article, book chapter, etc.), do not italicize the title. Use sentence case.
||Periodical Title, Volume(Issue), Pages. DOI
||Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 34(1): 29-53. http://doi.org/10.1080/02699206.2019.1610798
||Parent Agencies. URL
||U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.xxxxx.gov
|Book or ebook
||Publisher Name. DOI or URL
||Site Name. URL
||Mayo Clinic. https://www.xxxxxxxxxx.org
Look up DOIs for articles and books. An official Digital Object Identifier Registration Agency of the International DOI Foundation.
APA Style Websites
APA Style Blog, Seventh Edition
The APA Style Blog is the official companion to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition.