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Basic Principles of AMA In-Text Citations
AMA Style uses a superscript Arabic numeral system to refer readers to the reference list entry.
- Cite using superscript numbers (e.g. 1,2 )
- Number references in the order they appear in your paper
- Place numbered superscripts:
- Immediately next to the fact, idea or quotation being cited
- Outside commas and periods; inside colons and semicolons
- Using author names in the text of your paper
- Using author names is optional in AMA
- To use an author name:
- Only use the authors’ last names
- To refer to studies with one or two authors, include both names
- For studies with 3 or more authors, include the first author's last name and then et al.
A recent study1 reported...
Given low levels of health literacy in the United States,2,3...
Yang et al.4 reviewed...
Other studies confirmed these findings.5-8
Multiple studies have proven that…9,12-15
Summarization, Paraphrasing, & Quotation
- Paraphrases, quotations, adapted or reprinted tables and figures, and data sets require citations.
- Only cite works you have read. Reading the abstract doesn't count!
- Provide citations for facts and figures that are not common knowledge.
- Avoid citing secondary sources (i.e. information first reported in another source).
- Use research to support your claims:
Diabetes is an important issue in the United States.
Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States.3,9-10
AMA Style Insider
AMA Style Insider is the official blog of the AMA Manual of Style and features quizzes, interviews, and ruminations on style, usage, and punctuation. Brought to you by the JAMA Network.
NLM Catalog: Journal Title Abbreviations for AMA References
Use this link to find journal abbreviations for AMA style references.
Look up DOIs for articles and books. An official Digital Object Identifier Registration Agency of the International DOI Foundation.