Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Midwestern University Homepage

AMA 11: In-Text Citations

Basic Principles of AMA In-Text Citations

AMA Style uses a superscript Arabic numeral system to refer readers to the reference list entry.

  • Cite using superscript numbers (e.g. 1,2 )
    • Number references in the order they appear in your paper 
    • Place numbered superscripts:
      • Immediately next to the fact, idea or quotation being cited
      • Outside commas and periods; inside colons and semicolons
  • Using author names in the text of your paper
    • Using author names is optional in AMA 
    • To use an author name:
      • Only use the authors’ last names
      • To refer to studies with one or two authors, include both names
      • For studies with 3 or more authors, include the first author's last name and then et al.

Examples:
A recent study1 reported...
Given low levels of health literacy in the United States,2,3...
Yang et al.4 reviewed...
Other studies confirmed these findings.5-8
Multiple studies have proven that…9,12-15

Summarization, Paraphrasing, & Quotation

  • Paraphrases, quotations, adapted or reprinted tables and figures, and data sets require citations.
    • Only cite works you have read. Reading the abstract doesn't count!
  • Provide citations for facts and figures that are not common knowledge.
  • Avoid citing secondary sources (i.e. information first reported in another source).
  • Use research to support your claims:

Underdeveloped

Diabetes is an important issue in the United States.

Developed

Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States.3,9-10

chat loading...
Email a Librarian
Downers Grove, IL (630) 515-6200
Glendale, AZ (623) 572-3308
Library Hours

AMA Websites

Downers Grove Campus Library (630) 515-6200
Littlejohn Hall
555 31st St. Downers Grove, IL 60515
Map and Driving Directions - IL

Glendale Campus Library (623) 572-3308
Sahuaro Hall
19555 N. 59th Ave. Glendale, AZ 85308
Map and Driving Directions - AZ